An evolving understanding of nuclear receptor coregulator proteins

    1. John W R Schwabe
    1. Henry Wellcome Laboratories of Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
    1. Correspondence should be addressed to J W R Schwabe; Email: john.schwabe{at}


    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate gene expression through the ligand-controlled recruitment of a diverse group of proteins known as coregulators. Most nuclear receptor coregulators function in large multi-protein complexes that modify chromatin and thereby regulate the transcription of target genes. Structural and functional studies are beginning to reveal how these complexes are assembled bringing together multiple functionalities that mediate: recruitment to specific genomic loci through interaction with transcription factors; recruitment of enzymatic activities that either modify or remodel chromatin and targeting the complexes to their chromatin substrate. These activities are regulated by post-translational modifications, alternative splicing and small signalling molecules. This review focuses on our current understanding of coregulator complexes and aims to highlight the common principles that are beginning to emerge.

    • Revision received 10 October 2013
    • Accepted 15 October 2013
    • Made available online as an Accepted Preprint 7 November 2013
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