60 YEARS OF POMC: POMC: an evolutionary perspective

    1. Jose Miguel Cerdá-Reverter1
    1. 1Control of Food Intake Group, Department of Fish Physiology and Biotechnology, Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Castellón, Spain
    2. 2Aquatic Molecular Pathobiology Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IIM-CSIC), Vigo, Spain
    3. 3Laboratorio de Fisioloxía Animal, Departamento de Bioloxía Funcional e Ciencias da Saúde, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain
    1. Correspondence should be addressed to J M Cerdá-Reverter; Email: jm.cerda.reverter{at}csic.es


    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a complex precursor that comprises several peptidic hormones, including melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and β-endorphin. POMC belongs to the opioid/orphanin gene family, whose precursors include either opioid (YGGF) or the orphanin/nociceptin core sequences (FGGF). This gene family diversified during early tetraploidizations of the vertebrate genome to generate four different precursors: proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and nociceptin/proorphanin (PNOC) as well as POMC, although both PNOC and POMC seem to have arisen due to a local duplication event. POMC underwent complex evolutionary processes, including internal tandem duplications and putative coevolutionary events. Controversial and conflicting hypotheses have emerged concerning the sequenced genomes. In this article, we summarize the different evolutionary hypotheses proposed for POMC evolution.

    • Received 10 December 2015
    • Accepted 15 December 2015
    • Made available online as an Accepted Preprint 1 May 2016
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