Modeling estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in mice: is it the best we can do?

    1. Hippokratis Kiaris2,3,4
    1. 1Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
    2. 2Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
    3. 3Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center, Office of Research, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
    4. 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece
    1. Correspondence should be addressed to H Kiaris; Email: kiarish{at}


    The continuous supplementation of mice with supraphysiological doses of estrogen
    for the growth of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers has been linked to toxicity in the host and perturbation of cancer cells’ function that can misguide preclinical studies. Thus, alternative experimental models with circulating levels of estrogens higher than those of mice may represent more suitable hosts to model estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers.

    • Received 6 September 2016
    • Accepted 9 September 2016
    • Made available online as an Accepted Preprint 12 September 2016
    | Table of Contents