IAPP and type 1 diabetes: implications for immunity, metabolism and islet transplants

    1. C Bruce Verchere1,2
    1. 1Department of Surgery, BC Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    2. 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, BC Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    1. Correspondence should be addressed to C B Verchere: bverchere{at}bcchr.ca


    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), the main component of islet amyloid in type 2 diabetes and islet transplants, is now recognized as a contributor to beta cell dysfunction. Increasingly, evidence warrants its investigation in type 1 diabetes owing to both its immunomodulatory and metabolic actions. Autoreactive T cells to IAPP-derived epitopes have been described in humans, suggesting that IAPP is an islet autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. In addition, although aggregates of IAPP have not been implicated in type 1 diabetes, they are potent pro-inflammatory stimuli to innate immune cells, and thus, could influence autoimmunity. IAPP aggregates also occur rapidly in transplanted islets and likely contribute to islet transplant failure in type 1 diabetes through sterile inflammation. In addition, since type 1 diabetes is a disease of both insulin and IAPP deficiency, clinical trials have examined the potential benefits of IAPP replacement in type 1 diabetes with the injectable IAPP analogue, pramlintide. Pramlintide limits postprandial hyperglycemia by delaying gastric emptying and suppressing hyperglucagonemia, underlining the possible role of IAPP in postprandial glucose metabolism. Here, we review IAPP in the context of type 1 diabetes: from its potential involvement in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, through its role in glucose metabolism and use of IAPP analogues as therapeutics, to its potential role in clinical islet transplant failure and considerations in this regard for future beta cell replacement strategies.

    • Received 30 November 2017
    • Accepted 6 December 2017
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