Combination therapy approaches to target insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling in breast cancer

    1. Robert C Baxter
    1. Kolling Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia
    1. Correspondence should be addressed to A M Ochnik; Email: aleksandra.ochnik{at}


    Insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) signaling as a therapeutic target has been widely studied and clinically tested. Despite the vast amount of literature supporting the biological role of IGF1R in breast cancer, effective clinical translation in targeting its activity as a cancer therapy has not been successful. The intrinsic complexity of cancer cell signaling mediated by many tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors that work together to modulate each other and intracellular downstream mediators in the cell highlights that studying IGF1R expression and activity as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in isolation is certainly associated with problems. This review discusses the current literature and clinical trials associated with IGF-1 signaling and attempts to look at new ways of designing novel IGF1R-directed breast cancer therapy approaches to target its activity
    and/or intracellular downstream signaling pathways in IGF1R-expressing breast cancers.

    • Received 2 August 2016
    • Accepted 9 September 2016
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