Accepted Preprint (first posted online 28 October 2014)

    Endothelial cells and the insulin-like growth factor system

    1. Leon A Bach
    1. L Bach, Medicine (Alfred), Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    1. Correspondence: Leon Bach, Email: leon.bach{at}


    Endothelial cells line blood vessels and modulate vascular tone, thrombosis, inflammatory responses and new vessel formation. They are implicated in many disease processes including atherosclerosis and cancer. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a significant role in the physiology of endothelial cells by promoting migration, tube formation and production of the vasodilator nitric oxide. These actions are mediated by the IGF-I and IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and are modulated by a family of high affinity IGF binding proteins. IGFs also increase endothelial progenitor cell number and function which may contribute to protection from atherosclerosis. IGFs promote angiogenesis, and dysregulation of the IGF system may contribute to this process in cancer and eye diseases including retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy. In some situations, IGF deficiency appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, whereas IGF may be deleterious in others. These differences may be due to tissue-specific endothelial cell phenotypes or IGFs having distinct roles in different phases of vascular disease. Further studies are therefore required to delineate the therapeutic potential of IGF system modulation in pathogenic processes.

    • Received 4 September 2014
    • Revision received 20 October 2014
    • Accepted 28 October 2014
    • Accepted Preprint first posted online on 28 October 2014

    This Article

    1. J Mol Endocrinol JME-14-0215
    1. Abstract
    2. All Versions of this Article:
      1. JME-14-0215v1
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