Accepted Preprint (first posted online 13 December 2016)

    Thyroid nodules and cancer management guidelines: comparisons and controversies

    1. Matthew D Ringel
    1. F Nabhan, Medicine, The Ohio State University , Columbus, United States
    2. M Ringel, Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, United States
    1. Correspondence: Matthew Ringel, Email: Matthew.Ringel{at}


    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly prevalent malignancy throughout the world. Management guidelines for both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer have been published and updated by a number of societies internationally. All of these guidelines recognize this increasing incidence, particularly of small papillary thyroid cancers, due in part to improved technology enabling early or even "over" diagnosis. Recent advances in molecular imaging and molecular methods have been developed to better characterize thyroid nodules, and a number of studies that have clarified risk stratification systems that can be modified over time allow for individualization of diagnosis, initial treatment, and subsequent follow-up strategies. Advances in surgical approaches and new treatments for patients with the most aggressive forms of thyroid cancer have all impacted on management guidelines. Despite substantial similarities, there also are important differences between recent guidelines for some of the common clinical scenarios encountered by physicians in clinical practice. In the present manuscript we will highlight similarities and differences between several of the most recently published guidelines focused on key areas of importance to clinical care and controversy. These are key areas for future research to strengthen the data to support future guideline recommendations.

    • Received 5 October 2016
    • Revision received 9 December 2016
    • Accepted 13 December 2016
    • Accepted Preprint first posted online on 13 December 2016