The next step: mechanisms driving adrenocortical carcinoma metastasis

    1. Michaela Luconi5
    1. 1Université Côte d’Azur, Valbonne, France
    2. 2CNRS UMR7275, Valbonne, France
    3. 3NEOGENEX CNRS International Associated Laboratory, Valbonne, France
    4. 4Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Valbonne, France
    5. 5Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ‘Mario Serio’, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    1. Correspondence should be addressed to E Lalli or M Luconi: ninino{at} or michaela.luconi{at}


    Endocrine tumors have the peculiarity to become clinically evident not only due to symptoms related to space occupation by the growing lesion, similarly to most other tumors, but also, and most often, because of their specific hormonal secretion, which significantly contributes to their pathological burden. Malignant endocrine tumors, in addition, have the ability to produce distant metastases. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about mechanisms and biomarkers characterizing the metastatic process in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare endocrine malignancy with a high risk of relapse and metastatization even when the primary tumor is diagnosed and surgically removed at an early stage. We highlight perspectives of future research in the domain and possible new therapeutic avenues based on targeting factors having an important role in the metastatic process of ACC.

    • Received 13 November 2017
    • Accepted 15 November 2017
    • Made available online as an Accepted Preprint 15 November 2017
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