Androgen deprivation and immunotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer

  1. Douglas G McNeel
  1. University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  1. Correspondence should be addressed D G McNeel; Email: dm3{at}
  1. Figure 1

    Sex steroids have effects on both the prostate and the thymus. Androgens such as testosterone and DHT induces a decrease in thymus weight and an increase in prostate weight. Conversely, androgen deprivation causes an increase in thymus weight and a decrease in prostate weight. Androgens also affect T cells, with testosterone causing an increase in immunosuppressive Tregs and IL-10 production and DHT causing a decrease in IFNγ-secretion by T cells. In addition, estrogen causes an increase in Tregs and increased β2-microglobulin expression and MHC molecules. Androgen deprivation causes an increase in naïve T cell numbers, increase in antigen-specific T cells and increased IFNγ production as well as causing T-cell infiltration into the prostate.

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