Accepted Preprint (first posted online 23 July 2014)

    Leptin in human reproductive disorders

    1. Christos Mantzoros
    1. S Chou, Endocrinology, University of Chicago, Chicago, United States
    2. C Mantzoros, Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, 02215, United States
    1. Correspondence: Christos Mantzoros, Email: cmantzor{at}


    As a key hormone in energy homeostasis, leptin regulates neuroendocrine function, including reproduction. It has a permissive role in initiating puberty and maintaining the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This is notable in patients with either congenital or acquired leptin deficiency from a state of chronic energy insufficiency. Hypothalamic amenorrhea is the best-studied with clinical trials confirming a causative role of leptin in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Implications of leptin deficiency have also emerged in the pathophysiology of hypogonadism in type 1 diabetes. At the other end of the spectrum, hyperleptinemia may play a role in hypogonadism associated with obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. In these conditions of energy excess, mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction include central leptin resistance as well as direct effects at the gonadal level. Thus, reproductive dysfunction due to energy imbalance at both ends can be linked to leptin.

    • Received 28 April 2014
    • Received in final form 8 July 2014
    • Accepted 23 July 2014
    • Accepted Preprint first posted online on 23 July 2014

    This Article

    1. J Endocrinol JOE-14-0245
    1. Abstract
    2. All Versions of this Article:
      1. JOE-14-0245v1
      2. 223/1/T49 most recent

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