Vitamin D, the placenta and early pregnancy: effects on trophoblast function

  1. Martin Hewison1,3
  1. 1Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Fetal Medicine Centre, Birmingham Women’s NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
  3. 3CEDAM, Birmingham Health Partners, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  4. 4Division of Developmental Biology and Medicine, Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK
  5. 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  6. 6School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
  1. Correspondence should be addressed to M Hewison: m.hewison{at}
  1. Figure 1

    Vitamin D pathway components at the maternal–fetal interface associated with implantation. Schematic showing key cell types involved in implantation and associated expression of components of the vitamin D system: CYP2R1, vitamin D-25-hydroxylase; CYP24A1, vitamin D-24-hydroxylase; CYP27B1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase; DBP, vitamin D binding protein; hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin; hPL, human prolactin; RXR, retinoid X receptor; VDR, vitamin D receptor.

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