30 YEARS OF THE MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR: The role of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the vasculature

  1. Iris Z Jaffe
  1. Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
  1. Correspondence should be addressed to I Z Jaffe; Email: Ijaffe{at}tuftsmedicalcenter.org
  1. Figure 1

    Model for the role of smooth muscle cell-mineralocorticoid receptor (SMC-MR) in vascular function. At the cellular level, SMC-MR contributes to vascular tone and vasoconstriction, specifically in aging SMC. MR expression rises with age, resulting in suppressed transcription of miR-155, leading to the upregulation of the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) and l-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit Cav1.2. SMC-MR contributes to vascular remodeling via several mechanisms, including:(1) Rho-kinase signaling, which is activated by aldosterone (Aldo) via SMC-MR or AngII, leading to c-src and Rho-associated kinase activation and SMC migration; (2) Placental growth factor (PlGF) signaling leading to vascular remodeling specifically in areas on vascular damage/injury, where the vascular endothelial growth factor type 1 receptor(VEGFR1) is up-regulated by SMC-MR. Together, these effects of SMC-MR activation lead to significant effects on vessel function, including: increases in vascular tone, vasoconstriction, SMC proliferation, SMC migration, vascular fibrosis and vascular stiffness. Ultimately, SMC-MR activation results in end-organ damage such as high blood pressure, coronary vascular dysfunction, cardiac interstitial fibrosis, alterations in renal hemodynamics and kidney failure. AngII; Angiotensin II. ROS; reactive oxygen species. ROCK; Rho-associated kinase. Ca; calcium. SMC; smooth muscle cell. LV; left ventricle.

  2. Figure 2

    Model for the role of endothelial cell-mineralocorticoid receptor (EC-MR) in vascular function. In the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension, EC-MR contributes to endothelial dysfunction via endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling, NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation, increases in epithelial sodium channel expression and inflammation via ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte adhesion. ICAM-1; intracellular adhesion molecule-1. ROS; reactive oxygen species. NO; nitric oxide. eNOS; endothelial nitric oxide synthase. ENaC; epithelial sodium channel.

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