30 YEARS OF THE MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR: Nongenomic effects via the mineralocorticoid receptor

    1. Claudia Grossmann
    1. Julius Bernstein Institute of Physiology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
    1. Correspondence should be addressed to C Grossmann; Email: claudia.grossmann{at}medizin.uni-halle.de


    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) belongs to the steroid hormone receptor family and classically functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. It is involved in water-electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation but independent from these effects also furthers inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy and remodeling in cardiovascular tissues. Next to genomic effects, aldosterone elicits very rapid actions within minutes that do not require transcription or translation and that occur not only in classical MR epithelial target organs like kidney and colon but also in nonepithelial tissues like heart, vasculature and adipose tissue. Most of these effects can be mediated by classical MR and its crosstalk with different signaling cascades. Near the plasma membrane, the MR seems to be associated with caveolin and striatin as well as with receptor tyrosine kinases like EGFR, PDGFR and IGF1R and G protein-coupled receptors like AT1 and GPER1, which then mediate nongenomic aldosterone effects. GPER1 has also been named a putative novel MR. There is a close interaction and functional synergism between the genomic and the nongenomic signaling so that nongenomic signaling can lead to long-term effects and support genomic actions. Therefore, understanding nongenomic aldosterone/MR effects is of potential relevance for modulating genomic aldosterone effects and may provide additional targets for intervention.

    • Received 21 March 2017
    • Accepted 27 March 2017
    • Made available online as an Accepted Preprint 27 March 2017
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