Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age

  1. David H Barad1,2
  1. 1The Center for Human Reproduction, New York, New York, USA
  2. 2The Foundation for Reproductive Medicine, New York, New York, USA
  3. 3The Brivanlou Stem Cell Biology and Molecular Embryology Laboratory, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA
  4. 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
  5. 5Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
  1. Correspondence should be addressed to N Gleicher; Email: ngleicher{at}
  1. Figure 1

    Current and future therapeutic targets of interventions into folliculogenesis. The figure demonstrates the approximate time span (in days) for the different stages of follicle maturation. Modern infertility treatments of the last 50 years almost exclusively only intervened pharmacologically at the gonadotropin-sensitive last 14 days of follicle maturation. In pointing out future directions for fertility treatments of older women, we here argue that effective therapeutic interventions have to be directed at much earlier stages of follicle maturation, involving small growing follicle stages.

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