The diversity of sex steroid action: regulation of metabolism by estrogen signaling

  1. Jan-Åke Gustafsson1
  1. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, S-141 83 Huddinge, Sweden
    1Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77 204, USA
  1. (Correspondence should be addressed to M H Faulds; Email: malhed{at}
  1. Figure 1

    Summary of the effects on metabolism observed in ERα, ERβ, and aromatase knockout (ArKO) female and male mice. Reported effects in different metabolic tissues, i.e. central nervous system (CNS), pancreatic β cell, skeletal muscle, liver, and white adipose tissue (WAT), are indicated. ND, no difference; HFD, high-fat diet; TG, triglycerides.

  2. Figure 2

    Model showing estrogenic control of glucose homeostasis by regulatory actions in CNS, β cells, muscles, liver, and adipocytes.

  3. Figure 3

    Overview of IR induced by estrogen deficiency and subsequent disturbances in metabolic tissues.

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