Growth factor-driven mechanisms associated with resistance to estrogen deprivation in breast cancer: new opportunities for therapy

    1. J M W Gee
    1. Tenovus Centre for Cancer Research, Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    1. (Requests for offprints should be addressed to R I Nicholson; nicholsonri{at}


    There is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating that elevated growth signaling in breast cancer cells can promote forms of endocrine resistance in either an estrogen receptor-dependent or -independent manner. The current article reviews what is known about such growth factor signaling networks and resistance to estrogen withdrawal and considers the many novel therapeutic opportunities that stem from this knowledge.

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