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  1. ... individuals with T1DM, the cells, which produce insulin in islets of the pancreas, are destroyed by the immune cells. If not properly treated, T1DM may result in serious secondary complications including cardiovascular 235 Correspondence should be addressed to Y Wu or G R Rayat Email yulianwu ~~~
  2. ...) and 179 insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (Jones & Clemmons 1995) and TGF- which activate 180 osteoblastic transcription factors such as Runx2 and -catenin. In cultured human 181 osteoblasts, exogenous GC administration also results in suppression of the canonical 182 Wnt--Catenin signaling pathway ~~~
  3. ...(Mishra, et al. 2015). 191 T3 levels promote appropriate muscle responsiveness to insulin, and this effect depends 192 on the conversion of T4 to T3 by local D2 as shown in D2-deficient myotube cultures, which 193 present blunted insulin signalling (Grozovsky, et al. 2009). This effect is partly ~~~
  4. ...with glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion. To understand the underlying 36 mechanism(s) behind the glucocorticoid deficiency we performed comprehensive RNA-seq 37 on adrenals from wild-type (C57BL/6N), mutant (C57BL/6J) and BAC transgenic mice 38 overexpressing Nnt (C57BL/6JBAC). Results: Our data ~~~
  5. vitro and in vivo. We examined the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on glucose level, insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Ginsenoside Rg3 was also applied to the pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 to assess the impact on lipogenesis. Ginsenoside Rg3 reduced epididymal white ~~~
  6. ..., Jorgensen etal. 2013). Notably, brain-specific or muscle-specific SOCS3 ablation improves insulin sensitivity and may partially prevent diet-induced obesity (Mori etal. 2004, Jorgensen etal. 2013, Pedroso etal. 2014). These effects occur because SOCS3 inhibits several cytokines/hormones that regulate ~~~
  7. ...insulin sensitivity. Annual Review of Medicine 49 235–261. (doi:10.1146/ Hagobian TA, Yamashiro M, Hinkel-Lipsker J, Streder K, Evero N & Hackney T 2013 Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women. Applied Physiology Nutrition an ~~~
  8. ...and 2.5 mmolL-1 L-glutamine, supplemented with 1.125 gL-1 NaHCO3, insulin (66 116 nmolL ), hydrocortisone (10 nmolL ), 17-estradiol (10 nmolL ), transferrin (10 mgml ), selenite 117 (30 nmolL-1), penicillin (100 UmL-1), streptomycin (100 mgmL-1), and 2% fetal bovine serum 118 (FBS) (Krug et al ~~~
  9. ...gluconeogenesis and lipolysis as well as maintaining a high-amplitude expression rhythmic in the circadian clock Per genes (Rose & Herzig 2013, Polidarov etal. 2016). The melatonin peak occurs only during the dark period (its synthesis is prevented by light exposure) and influences energy balance, insulin ~~~
  10. ...of Toyama, Toyama, Japan 6Department of Internal Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan Abstract Obesity-associated activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance; however, influences of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR ~~~
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